teach grammar by explaining the forms and rules and then drilling
students on them. This results in bored, disaffected students who
canproduce correct forms on exercises and tests
students will absorb grammar rules as they hear, read, and use the language in communication activities.
Declarative knowledge enables a student to describe a rule of grammar and apply it in pattern practice drills
Procedural knowledge enables a student to apply a rule of grammar in communication.
involves a sender (a person, radio, television), a message, and a
receiver (the listener). Listeners often must process messages as they
come, even if they are still processing what they have just heard,
without backtracking or looking ahead. In addition, listeners must cope
with the sender's choice of vocabulary, structure, and rate of delivery.
The complexity of the listening process is magnified in second language
contexts, where the receiver also has incomplete control of the
Given the importance of listening in language learning
and teaching, it is essential for language teachers to help their
students become effective listeners
• Radio and television programs
• Public address announcements (airports, train/bus stations, stores)
• Speeches and lectures
• Telephone customer service recordings