اردني انجلش
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أهلا وسهلا بك اردني انجلش.
أهلا وسهلا بك زائرنا الكريم، إذا كانت هذه زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى، فيرجى التكرم بزيارة صفحة التعليمـــات، بالضغط هنا.كما يشرفنا أن تقوم بالتسجيل بالضغط هنا إذا رغبت بالمشاركة في المنتدى، أما إذا رغبت بقراءة المواضيع والإطلاع فتفضل بزيارة القسم الذي ترغب أدناه.




 

اردني انجلش :: منتديات اللغة الانجليزية :: منتديات اللغة الانجليزية :: منتدى اللغة الأنجليزية العام

شاطر
الأحد 24 أبريل 2011 - 21:22
المشاركة رقم: #
المعلومات
الكاتب:
اللقب:
مؤسسين الشبكة
الرتبه:
مؤسسين الشبكة
الصورة الرمزية


البيانات
انثى
عدد المساهمات : 7166
نقاط : 23071
السٌّمعَة : 59
تاريخ التسجيل : 11/01/2011
الموقع : Jordan
تعاليق : TO BE OR NOT TO BE THAT``S THE QUESTION
التوقيت

الإتصالات
الحالة:
وسائل الإتصال:
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://jordan-english.yoo7.com


مُساهمةموضوع: Linguistics



Linguistics


Linguistics is the scientific study of language aimed at understanding the structure and
function of language


Linguistics is considered as a science because of the following reasons

1
Linguistics employs the methodology of science _ observation, classification, hypothesis formulation, testing, verification etc

2
Linguistics relies on empirical data-i.e. data
obtained by experimentation or observation. It avoids subjective and
speculative approaches , linguistics aims is to make objective
statements about language


3
Linguistics is not prescriptive but descriptive. It
does not attempt to describe use and varieties of use, based on clear
principles


4 The concepts of language
developed by linguistics is not based on a particular language or group
of languages. Linguistics aim to state universal rules by studying
different languages and language groups


5
Linguistics studies not only language performance but
the competence of the speakers. Competence is the knowledge about
language contained in the brain of the speakers



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الموضوعالأصلي : Linguistics // المصدر : اردني انجلش // الكاتب: GNASSORA



توقيع : GNASSORA





الأحد 24 أبريل 2011 - 21:23
المشاركة رقم: #
المعلومات
الكاتب:
اللقب:
مؤسسين الشبكة
الرتبه:
مؤسسين الشبكة
الصورة الرمزية


البيانات
انثى
عدد المساهمات : 7166
نقاط : 23071
السٌّمعَة : 59
تاريخ التسجيل : 11/01/2011
الموقع : Jordan
تعاليق : TO BE OR NOT TO BE THAT``S THE QUESTION
التوقيت

الإتصالات
الحالة:
وسائل الإتصال:
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://jordan-english.yoo7.com


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Linguistics



Linguistics

Language: Language is a set of sound signals through which humans communicate

There are some properties which are common to all
human language. These properties make human language different from
other systems of communication like animal communication

1
The basic medium of human language is sound signals.
Many animals like birds , dolphins and monkeys also use sound signals,
but human language uses discrete sound units, i.e. non-continuous
variation. In animals communication continuous variation is used. In
human language the sounds are made into clear, separate units. The large
stretches of speech signals cannot be broken into separate units in
animal language. In human language small differences between sounds,
such as between/p/ and /b/ or /k/ and /g/ are used to convey meaning


2
Arbitrariness or conventional meaning is an important
property of human languages. The meaning of a word is merely a
convention. There is no link between a signal and the message. An
elephant is not called an elephant because it is big, a pig is not
called a pig because it is dirty. A speech community may agree to use
any signal to denote any object. Except onomatopoeic words like screech,
bang, swish etc., which attempts to imitate some sounds, the connection
between form and meaning is arbitrary in human languages


3
Human language follow a dual-level organization. This
property of duality allows humans to produce a large number of speech
signals. The basic sounds of English, like /t/, /p/ and /o/ can be
combined in different ways to form different words like top, pot, opt
etc. Thus a large of sound units combine to form a second layer of
larger units


4
The speech signals of animals are spontaneous in that
they can be uttered only in actual context. A monkey produces a warning
cry only in a situation of danger. It cannot warn of future danger or
talk about past danger. But human language can be used to speak about
past or the future. This property is known as displacement


5
The property of productivity or creativity helps
humans to produce infinite speech signals from a limited number of basic
units and rules. The same meaning can be expressed in a number of ways


6
Human languages have internal organization or
patterning. Each item of a language has a specific place in language.
Only when an item is placed in its specific position does it convey
meaning. For eg., each tem in a sentence like "Ali came into the room"
can be replaced only by some specific items. 'Ali' can be replaced by
'Laila', 'Ali and Laila', 'The boy', 'some boys', or 'The man who came
from India'. Similarly 'came' can be replaced by 'went', 'jumped', etc


7
Human Languages are structure dependent in that
the speaker and hearer depend not on combination of units but on
structuring of a sentence to communicate meaning. We understand the
different in meaning between
Hassan was forgotten
and
Hassan was outspoken
Because of the difference in structure. Though the units are similar in
each sentence, the relationship between units are different, resulting
in a different structure for each sentence. In the first sentence the
action is being performed in relation to Hassan , and in the second we
are speaking about an action performed by Hassan


8
The knowledge of human language is not spontaneous as
in animal communication. It needs to be learned by actual use in life
situations and has to be developed through a period of time


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الموضوعالأصلي : Linguistics // المصدر : اردني انجلش // الكاتب: GNASSORA



توقيع : GNASSORA





الأحد 24 أبريل 2011 - 21:24
المشاركة رقم: #
المعلومات
الكاتب:
اللقب:
مؤسسين الشبكة
الرتبه:
مؤسسين الشبكة
الصورة الرمزية


البيانات
انثى
عدد المساهمات : 7166
نقاط : 23071
السٌّمعَة : 59
تاريخ التسجيل : 11/01/2011
الموقع : Jordan
تعاليق : TO BE OR NOT TO BE THAT``S THE QUESTION
التوقيت

الإتصالات
الحالة:
وسائل الإتصال:
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://jordan-english.yoo7.com


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Linguistics



Linguistics

Function of Human Language

All human language are used to perform a variety of functions
1
Information Function: Language is used to talk about objecs, people, events of past, present or future time

2
Communicating Needs : Language is used to tell other of our needs and to get them to do what we want

3
Emotional Expression: Our states of mind, experiences and feelings are communicated using language

4
Social Interaction: Language is used to express
social relationships and cultural customs;Greetings, polite expressions
wishes, phatic communion


5
Poetic or Artistic Function: Language is used as a medium for aesthetic expression. (Poetry, story, drama, songs etc.)

6
Instrument of Thought: Language helps to think, analyze and to solve problems

7
Expression of identity: Language signifies certain
types of identity. Your identity as speaker of a particular language, or
a dialect is significant in many situation


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الموضوعالأصلي : Linguistics // المصدر : اردني انجلش // الكاتب: GNASSORA



توقيع : GNASSORA






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